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Accomodative Esotropia


A sensorimotor anomaly of the binocular vision system in which the foveal line of sight of either eye

occasionally deviates inward and fails to intersect the object of fixation. The deviation is due to excessive convergence accompanying uncorrected hyperopia and/or high AC/A (accommodative convergence/accommodation) ratio.


The signs and symptoms with accommodative esotropia may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. transient blurred vision
  2. reduced efficiency and productivity/diminished accuracy/inconsistent work product
  3. diminished performance with time on task
  4. diplopia (ICD: H53.2)/tendency to close or cover one eye/eye turn, deviation (ICD:H51.9)
  5. inaccurate/inconsistent depth judgment
  6. pain in or around the eye (ICD: H57.13)
  7. headaches (ICD: R51)
  8. difficulty sustaining near visual function
  9. avoidance of visually demanding tasks
  10. inaccurate eye-hand coordination
  11. avoids eye contact
  12. difficulty visually tracking or following objects
  13. loss of place, repetition &/or omission of words &/or lines of print while reading
  14. transpositions when copying from one source document to another
  15. abnormal postural adaptation/abnormal working distance (ICD: R29.3)
  16. spatial disorientation
  17. photophobia (ICD: H53.149)
  18. inconsistent visual attention/concentration and/or awareness
  19. general fatigue (ICD: R53.83)
  20. dizziness/vertigo (ICD: R42); especially during/after sustained visually demanding tasks
  21. motion sickness (ICD: T75.3XXA)
  22. incoordination/clumsiness (ICD: R27.8)
  23. awareness of suppression and the need for volitional control of eyes
  24. asthenopia (ICD: H53.149)


Accommodative esotropia is characterized by one or more of the following diagnostic findings:

  1. strabismus, esotropia (ICD:H50.00)/deviation reduces with accommodative inhibition
  2. eso deviation significantly greater at near than far
  3. high AC/A ratio


The doctor of optometry determines appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and frequency of evaluation and follow-up, based on the urgency and nature of the patient’s conditions and unique needs. Vision disorders that are not totally cured through vision therapy may still be ameliorated with significant improvement in visual function and quality of life. The management of the case and duration of treatment would be affected by:

  1. the severity of symptoms and diagnostic factors, including onset and duration of the problem
  2. the complications of associated visual conditions
  3. implications of patient’s general health, cognitive development, physical development, and effects of medications taken
  4. etiological factors
  5. extent of visual demands placed upon the individual
  6. patient compliance and involvement in the prescribed therapy regimen
  7. type, scope, and results of prior interventions
  8. occupational/avocational goals


Some cases are successfully managed by the prescription of therapeutic lenses and/or prisms. Most intermittent alternating esotropias require optometric vision therapy, which incorporates the prescription of specific treatments in order to:

  1. reduce accommodative influence upon the strabismus
  2. enhance and equalize accommodative accuracy, amplitude, and facility
  3. enhance fusional vergence ranges, flexibility and stability
  4. enhance accommodative/convergence relationships
  5. integrate binocular function with information processing
  6. reduce esophoria/esotropia
  7. integrate binocular skills with accurate motor responses
  8. integrate binocular skills with other sensory skills (vestibular, kinesthetic, tactile, and auditory)
  9. enhance accommodative stability and flexibility/enhance relative accommodative ranges
  10. increase visual stamina/integrate newly established skills with information processing


The following treatment ranges are provided as a guide. Treatment duration will depend upon the particular patient’s condition and associated factors. When duration of treatment beyond these ranges is required, documentation of the medical necessity for additional treatment services may be warranted for third-party claims processing and review purposes.

  1. The most commonly encountered accommodative esotropia usually requires 40 hours of office
  2. Accommodative esotropia may require substantially more office therapy, if complicated by associated factors such as a partially non-accommodative component of the esotropia, prior eye muscle surgery, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, and/or systemic conditions.


At the conclusion of the active treatment regimen, periodic follow-up evaluation is required. Should signs, symptoms, or other diagnostic factors recur, further therapy may be medically necessary. Therapeutic lenses may be prescribed during or at the conclusion of active vision therapy to assist in the maintenance of long-term stability.