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Home » Vision Therapy Glossary A-Z » Limited-Ductions



A condition in which binocular function is compromised in a position of gaze other than primary gaze.



The signs and symptoms associated with limited ductions (other conditions) may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. diplopia (ICD: H53.2) in a position of gaze other than primary gaze
  2. defective stereopsis and inaccurate/inconsistent depth judgment
  3. general fatigue after sustained task
  4. eye turn, deviation (ICD:H51.9); sensation of monocular viewing; head turn
  5. inaccurate eye-hand coordination
  6. reduced efficiency and productivity/diminished accuracy/inconsistent work product
  7. asthenopia and diminished performance with increased task time
  8. abnormal postural adaptation/abnormal working distance (ICD: 3)
  9. spatial disorientation/incoordination/clumsiness (ICD: 8)



Limited ductions (other conditions) are characterized by one or more of the following findings:

  1. diplopia (ICD: H53.2) in a position of gaze other than primary gaze
  2. non-comitant eye movements
  3. strabismus in a position of gaze other than primary gaze



The doctor of optometry determines appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and frequency of evaluation and follow-up, based on the urgency and nature of the patient’s conditions and unique needs. Vision disorders that are not totally cured through vision therapy may still be ameliorated with significant improvement in visual function and quality of life. The management of the case and duration of treatment would be affected by:

  1. the severity of symptoms and diagnostic factors, including onset and duration of the problem
  2. the complications of associated visual conditions such as Duane’s syndrome or paretic strabismus
  3. implications of patient’s general health, cognitive development, physical development, and effects of medications taken
  4. etiological factors
  5. extent of visual demands placed upon the individual
  6. patient compliance and involvement in the prescribed therapy regimen
  7. type, scope, and results of prior interventions



Some cases are successfully managed by the prescription of therapeutic lenses and/or prisms. Many limited duction cases benefit from optometric vision therapy, which incorporates the prescription of specific treatments in order to:

  1. develop adequate fusional vergence ranges and stability in all positions of gaze at distance and near
  2. enhance accommodative/convergence relationships
  3. enhance depth judgments and/or stereopsis
  4. integrate binocular function with information processing
  5. enhance fusional vergence facility and flexibility
  6. integrate binocular skills with accurate motor responses
  7. integrate binocular skills with other sensory skills (vestibular, kinesthetic, tactile, and auditory)
  8. increase visual stamina/integrate newly established skills with information processing



The following treatment ranges are provided as a guide. Treatment duration will depend upon the particular patient’s condition and associated factors. When duration of treatment beyond these ranges is required, documentation of the medical necessity for additional treatment services may be warranted for third-party claims processing and review purposes.

  1. Full treatment requires resolution of associated visual
  2. The most commonly encountered case of limited duction adds 12 to 16 hours of office therapy to associated conditions. Associated factors such as prior eye muscle surgery, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, and/or systemic conditions may warrant an increase in treatment



At the conclusion of the active treatment regimen, periodic follow-up evaluation is required. Should signs, symptoms, or other diagnostic factors recur, further therapy may be medically necessary.

Therapeutic lenses may be prescribed during or at the conclusion of active vision therapy to assist in the maintenance of long-term stability.